Much of what Americans know about Rachel Robinson—who turned 99 on July 19—is what they've seen in the two major Hollywood films about Jackie. She was portrayed by Ruby Dee in the 1950 film, The Jackie Robinson Story, and by Nicole Beharie in the 2013 hit movie, 42. Both films depict Rachel as Jackie's supporter, cheerleader, and helpmate, the person who comforted him when he faced abuse, and encouraged him when he was feeling discouraged.
Within and outside the baseball world, Rachel has been, in her own right, a pioneer for social justice, using her celebrity as a platform to fight for a more equal society.
This is all true, but it is an incomplete picture of this remarkable woman. Rachel Robinson was not only Jackie's partner, she is also a feminist and civil rights crusader. Within and outside the baseball world, Rachel has been, in her own right, a pioneer for social justice, using her celebrity as a platform to fight for a more equal society.
There's a wonderful scene in Ken Burns' 2016 documentary, Jackie Robinson, where Barack and Michelle Obama explain the important role that Rachel played in her husband's success on and off the baseball field.
"I think anytime you're involved in an endeavor that involves enormous stress, finding yourself questioned in terms of whether you should be where you are, to be able to go back and have refuge with someone who you know loves you and you know has your back, that's priceless," the then-President says. Michelle Obama adds: "There's nothing more important than family—than a real partnership. Which is probably what made him such a great man."
One-upped, the president nods in agreement, with a knowing smile on his face. Michelle completes her thought: "It's a sign of his character that he chose a woman who was his equal. I don't think you would've had Jackie Robinson without Rachel."
Only 50 when Jackie died in 1972 she has kept alive her husband's legacy as both an athlete and activist, including his commitment to pushing Major League Baseball to hire more people of color as managers and as executives.
In 1997, the 50th anniversary of Jackie's triumph in breaking baseball's color line, Major League Baseball announced that every team would retire Jackie's number (42) and then celebrated April 15 (the day in 1947 when Jackie played his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers) by having every player wear that number.
But while the country was celebrating Jackie's accomplishments, Rachel made sure that the celebration did not divert attention from ongoing problems. "Racism is still with us and the struggle is still on," she said at the time.
When a Los Angeles Times reporter asked her if Jackie would be pleased with the status of race relations, Rachel didn't pull her punches. She said:
"No, I think he'd be very disturbed about it. We're seeing a great deal of divisiveness, a lot of hatred, a lot of tension between ethnic groups, and I think he'd be disappointed."
Thanks in part to her efforts, most of today's Major League players, managers, and executives know that they stand on the shoulders of those, like Jackie, who came before and opened doors for them. But, as Rachel observed, the progress has been limited.
In 2016, when she was 94, Rachel participated in the publicity efforts for Burns' four-hour documentary, which looks at Jackie's life through her eyes. She didn't shy away from criticizing baseball.
"There is a lot more that needs to be done, and that can be done, in terms of the hiring, the promotion," she said at one event. "We're talking about very few [black] coaches, very few managers."
In fact, the number of Black major league players athletes on major league rosters has declined precipitously—from 18.7 percent in 1981 to 7.8 percent last season. Only two of MLB's 30 managers are Black—the Astros' Dusty Baker and the Dodgers' Dave Roberts. Ken Williams, the Chicago White Sox's Executive Vice President,is the lone Black person in charge of baseball operations for any major league club. In February, MLB hiredMichael Hill—a Black former minor league player and most recently the general manager for theMiami Marlins—as senior vice president of on-field operations.
In 2014, the Baseball Reliquary inducted Rachel into its Shrine of the Eternals, an alternative Hall of Fame that celebrates baseball's rebels and renegades. By doing so, the group (which is coincidentally based in Pasadena, Jackie's hometown) was acknowledging that although she didn't own a team, cover the game as a reporter, or play the game herself, she was one of the most important woman in baseball history.
Three years later, in 2017, the Baseball Hall of Fame selected her as the fourth recipient of the Buck O'Neil Lifetime Achievement Award, created to honor individuals who have enhanced baseball's positive impact on society. That makes her and Jackie, who was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1962, the only husband-and-wife couple enshrined in the Cooperstown memorial.
In April, the Dodgers unveiled the first phase of a new multi-million dollar baseball complex at Gonzales Park in inner-city Compton, including a baseball field named for Rachel Robinson.
Rachel has received honorary degrees from 12 universities and received numerous awards, including the Candace Award for Distinguished Service from theNational Coalition of 100 Black Women, the Equitable LifeBlack Achiever's Award and the Associated Black Charities Black History Makers Award. She has been invited to the White House by five presidents.
Rachel Isum was born in 1922, when African Americans comprised only four percent of Los Angeles' population. At the time, Los Angeles still had restrictive covenants, prohibiting the sale of houses to African Americans in certain neighborhoods. To get around that obstacle, Rachel's parents—Charles and Zellee—arranged for a light-skinned black man to buy a house on 36th Place on LA's predominantly white west side and then re-sell it to them. This was a risky and courageous thing to do at a time when the Ku Klux Klan had a significant presence in LA.
Rachel faced bigotry on a regular basis. For example, when she and her friends went to the movies, they were regularly directed to the balcony in the movie theater.
Rachel's father had served in World War One. On his last day of active service, he was gassed, leaving him permanently disabled and with a chronic heart condition. By the time Rachel was in high school, her father had to quit his job as a bookbinder for the Los Angeles Times, where he'd worked for 25 years.
As a result, Rachel's mother had to support the family. She took classes in baking and cake decorating and had her own business catering luncheons and dinner parties for wealthy families in Beverly Hills, Bel Air, and Hollywood.
Rachel worked, too. She helped her mother with her catering business, worked on Saturdays at the concession stand in the public library, and sewed baby clothes for the National Youth Administration, part of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal program.
Rachel graduated from Manual Arts High School in June 1940. That fall, she entered UCLA's highly selective and competitive five-year nursing program. In 1940, only five percent of all women—and less than two percent of black women—earned a college degree. But Rachel didn't let those odds get in her way.
She met Jackie in 1941 when they were both students at UCLA. They were introduced by Ray Bartlett, one of Jackie's friends from Pasadena who also went to UCLA.
Jackie was already a multi-sport campus hero by the time he met Rachel. For their first date, Jackie took Rachel to a Bruin football dinner at the Biltmore Hotel in downtown LA.
"I thought he'd be arrogant," Rachel laterrecalled. But she was mistaken. "When I met Jack, he was so humble, so thoughtful—and handsome," she said. "I thought, 'I'm glad I was wrong!'"
Much of their courtship took place at Kerckhoff Hall, the student union, where the small number of UCLA's African American students gathered in-between classes. Rachel and Jackie got engaged later that year.
While at UCLA, Rachel lived at home and commuted to the campus each day.
She also worked at night. This was during World War Two, and local industries were hiring women to do what had previously been considered "men's" jobs.
Rachel was hired as a riveter at the Lockheed Aircraft factory in LA, where they made airplanes for the war effort. She worked the night shift, drove to UCLA at dawn, changed clothes in the parking lot, and then went to class.
Rachel and Jackie promised their parents that they wouldn't get married until Rachel had completed her degree. She earned her nursing degree in June 1945. They were married the following February.
By then, Jackie had already served in the military (where he was court-martialed, and acquitted, for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus near a military base in Texas), played in the Negro Leagues, and signed a contract to play with the Dodgers' minor league team in Montreal.
Two weeks after their marriage, Rachel and Jackie left for spring training in Daytona, Florida with the Montreal Royals. Burns' documentary portrays, through Rachel's voice, the ordeal they faced dealing with the Southern Jim Crow system, including the segregated trains, buses, restaurants, and stadiums, and the hostility of many white Southerners.
To get to Daytona, they flew from LA to New Orleans. At the New Orleans airport, they were told they were being "bumped" from the plane to Florida. Jackie protested this obvious racist act to the airline attendant behind the counter.
For the next 11 years—until Jackie retired from Major League Baseball in 1957—Rachel and Jackie together endured the humiliations and bigotry, and celebrated the triumphs and accolades, of being civil rights pioneers.
Meanwhile, Rachel escaped to the Ladies Room. But there were two Ladies Rooms in the airport, right next to each other. One said "Colored Women." The other said "White Women." Rachel went into the one that said "White Women." People stared at her, but nobody stopped her.
Nine years before Rosa Parks triggered the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rachel Robinson had performed her first act of civil disobedience.
For the next 11 years—until Jackie retired from Major League Baseball in 1957—Rachel and Jackie together endured the humiliations and bigotry, and celebrated the triumphs and accolades, of being civil rights pioneers.
Roger Wilkins, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, wrote this about Rachel:
"She was not simply the dutiful little wife. She was Jack's co-pioneer. She had to live through the death threats, endure the vile screams of the fans and watch her husband get knocked down by pitch after pitch. And because he was under the strictest discipline not to fight, spike, curse or spit back, she was the one who had to absorb everything he brought home. She was beautiful and wise and replenished his strength and courage."
In addition, she was primarily responsible for raising their three children—Jackie Junior, Sharon, and David.
While Jackie played for the Dodgers, they first lived in Brooklyn, and then in Long Island. Then they tried to buy a home in suburban Purchase, New York. After Rachel offered the asking price, the house was taken off the market, and she knew why.
In 1955, they found a plot of land they liked in Stamford, Connecticut and built a new home in that suburban community. When the news had spread that the Robinsons had bought the property, several families on the block sold their homes.
The Robinsons settled in, made friends, became active in the community. But they couldn't escape the racism.
When a white friend attempted to sponsor Jackie at the local country club, he was rejected by a majority vote. Jackie was already a bona fide national celebrity who had won the MVP award, but the white country clubbers didn't think he was good enough to play golf with them.
After Jackie retired from baseball in 1957, he began a new career in business, and expanded his involvement with the NAACP, SNCC, and Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and other civil rights groups, participating in protest rallies, going to the South to support the student-led sit-ins, including raising money for their bail.
Meanwhile, Rachel decided to resume her professional career. This was five years before Betty Friedan's book, The Feminine Mystique, ignited the women's movement. Rachel was an early feminist.
Jackie was upset by Rachel's decision to go back to school and back to work, but Rachel insisted that it was something she needed to do. Eventually, Jackie came around.
In 1959—at age 37—Rachel was admitted to the graduate program in psychiatric nursing at New York University.
After earning her master's degree, Rachel worked as a nurse-therapist and researcher at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.
Rachel has continued to be an outspoken activist for social justice.
In 1965, she was hired as a professor at Yale's School of Nursing and as the nursing director at the Connecticut Mental Health Center.
When Rachel was teaching at Yale, the university asked her to join its board of trustees. Rachel said no. She told Yale: "Not unless you put another black or another woman on the board. You won't get a two-fer from me."
While working full-time, Rachel remained deeply involved in her children's education and in community activities. Beginning in 1963, Jackie and Rachel hosted their legendary jazz concerts at their home as fundraisers for jailed civil rights activists. The performers included some of the most iconic names in music, including Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughn, Gerry Mulligan, and Dizzy Gillespie.
Rachel taught at Yale and ran the state mental health center for seven years, until 1972, the year that Jackie died at age 53 of diabetes and heart disease.
After Jackie's death, she took charge of running the Jackie Robinson Development Corporation. During her ten years as its president, it built more than 1,300 units of affordable housing.
In 1973, she created the Jackie Robinson Foundation. The foundation has provided scholarships to 1,450 college students. Each one gets $6,000 a year for four years, plus mentoring, summer jobs and internships. Most of these students are the first in their families to attend college. Most are students of color. They have a remarkable graduation rate of 97 percent. They've gone to Harvard, Yale, Georgetown, UCLA, and many other colleges.
Next year, the foundation will open the Jackie Robinson Museum in New York, one of Rachel's long-time dreams.
Like Jackie, she has enormous physical courage and moral integrity.
In 1997, for her 75th birthday, Rachel and a dozen family members climbed to 10,000 feet on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.
Often called the First Lady of baseball because of her resilience, courage, and remarkable achievements during Jackie's lifetime and in the 49 years since his passing. Rachel has continued to be an outspoken activist for social justice.
What was Jackie Robinson's last words? ›
I cannot salute the flag; I know that I am a black man in a white world.How Jackie Robinson Changed baseball Commonlit summary? ›
After just one season, he transferred to the Brooklyn Dodgers. As he stepped onto the field as first baseman in 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first Major League Baseball player to break the color barrier an unspoken social code of racial segregation or discrimination 8 since 1880. He was 28 years old.Does Jackie Robinson have a famous quote? ›
“Baseball is like a poker game. Nobody wants to quit when he's losing; nobody wants you to quit when you're ahead.” “A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.” “How you played in yesterday's game is all that counts.”Was Jackie Robinson good? ›
He won National League MVP honors in 1949, leading the league with a . 342 average and 37 steals while scoring 122 runs and driving in 124. Over his first seven seasons, he scored 773 runs, more than any player in baseball except Stan Musial.Who shook Jackie Robinson's hand? ›
George Shuba, a Brooklyn Dodgers outfielder who grasped the hand of African American ballplayer Jackie Robinson in a memorable gesture of interracial solidarity while they were minor league teammates in 1946, died Sept. 29 at his home in Youngstown, Ohio. He was 89.What does the B on Jackie Robinson's hat mean? ›
The royal blue “B” cap looks like any other Bums lid of the time, but for the inner lining that's fortified with a fiberglass-and-cloth composite that gave Robinson some extra protection from pitches aimed at his skull.What is the main message of Jackie Robinson Letter? ›
Robinson had grown increasingly impatient with what he regarded as President Eisenhower's failure to act decisively in combating racism. In this letter, he expresses his frustration and calls upon the President to finally guarantee Federal support of black civil rights.What was Jackie Robinson's message? ›
Having captured the attention of the American public in the ballpark, he now delivered the message that racial integration in every facet of American society would enrich the nation, just as surely as it had enriched the sport of baseball.What does the game baseball teach us about life? ›
Baseball teaches all to be flexible and persistent. You learn to know your strengths and play to them as well as know your weaknesses and work on them. Make a mistake, learn from it, and move on. That is what resiliency is all about.What is the most famous line ever? ›
- “ May the Force be with you.” - Star Wars, 1977.
- “ There's no place like home.” - The Wizard of Oz, 1939.
- “ I'm the king of the world!” - ...
- “ Carpe diem. ...
- “ Elementary, my dear Watson.” - ...
- “ It's alive! ...
- “ My mama always said life was like a box of chocolates. ...
- “ I'll be back.” -
What is the most famous line in a movie ever? ›
A jury consisting of 1,500 film artists, critics, and historians selected "Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn", spoken by Clark Gable as Rhett Butler in the 1939 American Civil War epic Gone with the Wind, as the most memorable American movie quotation of all time.What is the most famous baseball quote? ›
- “Every strike brings me closer to the next home run.” – Babe Ruth.
- “Never allow the fear of striking out keep you from playing the game.” – Babe Ruth.
- “Baseball is, was, and always will be the best game in the world to me.” – Babe Ruth.
Babe Ruth. There may have been more talented players in the game of baseball, but no one revolutionized the sport on the field more than Ruth; in fact, no one else has come close.Why was it important for Jackie Robinson not to fight back? ›
What he needed most was someone who would refuse to show anger and avoid violence at all costs; someone who would deprive bigots of the symbolic enemy they craved. Rickey famously told Robinson, “I'm looking for a ballplayer with guts enough not to fight back.”Did Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson get along? ›
So when Rickey left the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1950, three years after having signed Robinson to a Dodgers contract—Robinson, by then an established superstar, wrote him a letter of thanks. Rickey responded in kind, writing admirably about their friendship, albeit with a tone that today would be seen as patronizing.Were Jackie Robinson and Martin Luther King Jr friends? ›
Robinson and King became close friends as they both dedicated their lives to fighting injustice. Not satisfied with merely breaking baseball's color barrier in 1947, Robinson became even more involved in the civil rights movement after he retired in 1957, shortly after having been traded to the Giants.Who was Jackie Robinson's biggest supporter? ›
Branch Rickey: The Man Who Supported Jackie Robinson And The Integration Of Baseball. The 2022 season marks the 75th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's debut as a Major League Baseball player.Why is the number 42 retired in baseball? ›
In 1997, Major League Baseball honored Jackie Robinson by making his No. 42 the first uniform number to be retired across the sport. That said, players who were wearing No. 42 at the time could choose to continue wearing it until they retired.Who was the first black player in MLB? ›
Although Jackie Robinson is widely recognized as the first African-American to play in the Major Leagues, Walker is acknowledged by historians at the National Baseball Hall of Fame to actually be the first, six decades before Robinson suited up for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947.What is a tango hat? ›
The Tango is a classically styled center-dent fedora. More Information. Style. Fedora. Brand.
What lesson did Jackie Robinson teach? ›
Jackie's message suggests that fostering an inclusive culture is everyone's responsibility, whether you are a bank, a baseball player, a filmmaker, or simply a citizen of the world.How did Jackie Robinson show moral courage? ›
He showed the trait bravery by being the first African American to play Major League Baseball. He broke the barrier for the good of this world. Now many black people play professional baseball. He also showed commitment by not giving up when lots of people doubted him.Is the Jackie Robinson story accurate? ›
Arnold Rampersad, a professor of English at Stanford University who wrote a biography of Robinson, says the film really rings true. "Fundamentally, the story is accurate, in my estimation," he tells NPR's Robert Siegel.Who really broke the color barrier in baseball? ›
Jackie Robinson becomes first African American player in Major League Baseball. On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson, age 28, becomes the first African American player in Major League Baseball's modern era when he steps onto Ebbets Field in Brooklyn to compete for the Brooklyn Dodgers.What did Jackie Robinson do to change the world? ›
Yes, he does have outstanding achievements, yet he would not be considered one of the most influential people in sports. But Jackie Robinson, is one of the most influential sports players, having ended 60 years of racial segregation in the Major League Baseball.What was Jackie Robinson proud of? ›
In 1947, Jackie Robinson engineered the integration of professional sports in America by breaking the color barrier in baseball. He overcame numerous obstacles in his 10 year career to become one of baseball's most exciting and dazzling players.Why is baseball a metaphor for life? ›
In baseball, just as in life, many decisions are before us, and over time, both good and bad will happen. Whether you're caught stealing a cookie from the cookie jar or trying to steal second base, these things are bound to happen every now and again.What is the most important lesson when we play baseball? ›
- By Samantha Parrish-
- Baseball has been a part of my life for as long as I can remember. My grandparents, parents, we all grew up watching games together. ...
- Never give up. ...
- Effort over outcome. ...
- Life is unfair. ...
- Big Risks = Big Rewards. ...
- You can't pick your Coach or your Team. ...
- Don't burn bridges.
- “Whatever you are, be a good one.” ...
- “Be yourself; everyone else is already taken.” ...
- “Act as if what you do makes a difference. ...
- “The only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing.” ...
- “Positive anything is better than negative nothing.” ...
- “Limit your 'always' and your 'nevers'.”
1. "Whoa, take 'er easy there, Pilgrim." 2. "Courage is being scared to death but saddling up anyway."
What are the most powerful quotes of all time? ›
- “Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.” — Henry Ford.
- “Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.” — Confucius.
- “If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.” — Wayne Dyer.
- The Shower Scene – Psycho (1960)
- “I am your father” Scene – Star Wars: Empire Strikes Back (1980)
- “I'm Flying” Scene – Titanic (1997)
- “D-Day” Scene – Saving Private Ryan (1998)
- “Bullet Time” Scene – The Matrix (1999)
E.T. sits atop with 16 weeks at number one (31% of a year).What famous movie lines was completely improvised? ›
- "I'm the king of the world" – Titanic (1997) ...
- "Here's Johnny!" – The Shining (1980) ...
- "You talking to me?" – Taxi Driver (1976) ...
- "I know" – The Empire Strikes Back (1980) ...
- "I am Iron Man" – Iron Man (2008) ...
- "Mein Fuhrer, I can walk" – Dr Strangelove (1964)
God be my strength, when I throw the ball. when I'm far from home plate or against a wall. So I never miss a base, God, please guide my feet, bring me home safely, so my job is complete. When I help younger players, let me always give praise, so they'll see You in me, in all my ways.What is Derek Jeter's quote? ›
"God, I hope I wear this jersey forever." "If you're going to play at all, you're out to win. Baseball, board games, playing Jeopardy, I hate to lose."What did Albert Einstein say about baseball? ›
Walking out of the stadium, Einstein might well have thought: “God does not play dice with the world ... but He does play baseball.” speed or location of the ball as it arrives at the plate can result in a huge difference in where it goes.Who is considered the goat of baseball? ›
Nobody changed a sport like Babe Ruth did when he joined the Yankees and transformed baseball into a game of power. He is the greatest slugger of all time, proven by his record (. 690) career slugging percentage. Also, Ruth ranks 3rd in career home runs with 714 and second in RBIs with 2,214.Who holds the homerun record without steroids? ›
Barry Bonds has hit the most career homers, with 762 home runs.Who is the real home run king? ›
While the all-time MLB record of 73 home runs is still held by Barry Bonds, some observers believe that mark is illegitimate, because of the widespread use of performance-enhancing drugs during Bonds's era.
Who is the most underrated player in baseball? ›
- Overrated: Julio Rodriguez, Mariners.
- Underrated: Cedric Mullins, Orioles.
- Right Field.
- Overrated: Juan Soto, Padres.
- Underrated: Andrew Vaughn, White Sox.
- Starting Pitcher.
- Overrated: Gerrit Cole, Yankees.
- Underrated: Zac Gallen, Diamondbacks.
In 1897, the Chicago Colts of the National League defeated the Louisville Colonels, 36–7. The modern record (i.e., post-1900) for margin of victory was set in 2007, when the Texas Rangers defeated the Baltimore Orioles, 30–3.
The modern record still belongs to the 2007 Texas Rangers, who defeated the Baltimore Orioles by a 30-3 mark on August 22, 2007.How did other teams treat Jackie? ›
People called Robinson names, send him death threats, the other team would try to physically hurt him, and even his own teammates tried to get him out of the Major Leagues.Did Jackie Robinson refuse to give up his seat? ›
July 6, 1944: Lieutenant Jackie Robinson Refuses to Give Up Seat on Bus. On July 6, 1944, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson, while stationed at Camp Hood in Texas, was instructed to move to a seat farther back in the bus. Robinson refused and was court-martialed.Did Jackie Robinson say God built me to last? ›
“God built me to last,” Jackie Robinson says at one point in “42,” and, thankfully, his remarkable story is built the same way.Who spoke at Jackie Robinson's funeral? ›
At Robinson's funeral, Jesse Jackson delivered the eulogy. The pallbearers were basketball legend Bill Russell, Doby, who integrated the American League, and Dodger teammates Newcombe, Jim Gilliam, Pee Wee Reese and Ralph Branca. The Dodgers retired Robinson's uniform number, 42, a few months before his death.What did Pee Wee Reese say to Jackie Robinson? ›
Finally, as the level of vitriol reached its peak, Reese is said to have walked over to Robinson before the first pitch was thrown. He put his arm around Jackie as if to say: “This is my teammate and my friend.” Nobody recalls what, if anything, was said.What was Jackie Robinson doing when he died? ›
On October 24, 1972, just nine days after the celebratory event, Jackie Robinson died in his home of a heart attack. His appearance at the World Series provided Robinson, for the last time, with a platform to remind baseball and America what he had accomplished, and what he had spent most of his life championing.What did Tim Anderson actually say about Jackie Robinson? ›
"I kind of feel like today's Jackie Robinson,” Anderson said in the interview, referencing his desire to break the "have-fun barrier" in baseball. “That's huge to say. But it's cool, man, because he changed the game, and I feel like I'm getting to a point to where I need to change the game."
What did Tim Anderson say about Jackie? ›
Donaldson was suspended for one game by MLB after he called Anderson "Jackie" which was a referral to a 2019 quote in which Anderson compared himself to "today's Jackie Robinson." Anderson believed the remark was racist. He is right to believe that. We can analyze the hieroglyphics of Donaldson's aPoLUgY another time.Did God say if you build it they will come? ›
If you build it, they will come. Genesis 7:5 repeats what we learned yesterday. Noah did everything just as the Lord commanded him.Did Jackie Robinson refuse to sit in the back of the bus? ›
July 6, 1944: Lieutenant Jackie Robinson Refuses to Give Up Seat on Bus. On July 6, 1944, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson, while stationed at Camp Hood in Texas, was instructed to move to a seat farther back in the bus. Robinson refused and was court-martialed.Was Pee Wee Reese good to Jackie Robinson? ›
Reese was a strong supporter and a good friend of the first black Major League Baseball player, Jackie Robinson. He was serving a stint in the Navy when the news of Robinson's signing came.What are two words that describe Jackie Robinson? ›
Hard Working, Strong,and Committed are three words that people think of in connection to Jackie Robinson. Many people know who broke the color barrier in baseball,was jackie robinson, but he was so much more.What is the main idea of promises to keep Jackie Robinson? ›
|Main Idea||Jackie Robinson continues to inspire young people today.|
|Supporting Details||Children still do History Day projects on him.|
Fully committed to his philosophy of intrepid pacifism, Robinson even refused to argue with umpires as a rookie. With his inoffensive demeanor and undeniable dexterity, those who had opposed Robinson's breaking the color barrier out of paternalistic fear or skepticism were proven wrong.